Tag Archives: privilege escalation

Hacking with Local Privilege Escalation

Taking advance of Linux vulnerabilities can allow local privilege escalation.  This means you login as a normal unprivileged user, but you run some program, and you end up as a root user.  One classic exploit is called vmsplice, aka jessica_biel_naked_in_my_bed.c aka CVE-2008-0009.  Simply compile and run the program, and you’re root.

Just this week, a new exploit came out.  The vmsplice exploit works for Linux kernels 2.6.17 –  This new exploit (semtex.c) works for 2.6.37 – 3.8.10 (as well as 2.6.32 on CentOS).  It is CVE-2013-2094. UPDATE: Try searching for this on exploit-db.com as the original link is now down.

Setup Your Testbed

Download various versions of Linux to test it on.  I tried it on Ubuntu, Debian, CentOS, and Trixbox (an older version of CentOS with voice stuff).


How do you find a vulnerable host?

The easiest way is to check the kernel of the machine you are logged into:

$ uname -a
Linux new-host-4 2.6.32-358.el6.x86_64 #1 SMP Fri Feb 22 00:31:26 UTC 2013 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

This particular system looks like it is below the required kernel level.  However since it is CentOS, it still works.

A practical way as well is to simply try it.  Except for some funky logs, it shouldn’t hurt the system to just try the exploit to see if it works.

In my testing, this newest exploit worked on the latest CentOS and Debian (64-bit) distributions.  It did not work on Trixbox (kernel too old), Ubuntu (apparently according to comments in some of the references listed below it can work, but the code needs to be slightly edited), or the most recent Debian 32-bit (no idea why).

How do you attack that host?

You simply need to compile and run the program.  The vmsplice will compile very simply:

$ gcc exploit.c -o exploit
$ ./exploit

The new exploit requires slightly different instructions:

$ gcc -O2 semtex.c
$ ./a.out

If it works, you should get a root console:



https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=5703758 (original poster)
http://www.reddit.com/r/netsec/comments/1eb9iw/sdfucksheeporgs_semtexc_local_linux_root_exploit/ (splender does an excellent dissection of the exploit in the comments)

(Mis)Adventures in Java “Privilege Escalation”

If you are pretty familiar with Java development, this post will seem silly to you.  But I’m not.  Many times, you can learn a lot from failures as well, so this one I’d like to document.

Basically, I had gotten a command prompt as a lower privileged user on a machine.  I was looking to get administrator access somehow, and I noticed that Java 7 Update 4 was running, which is vulnerable to CVE-2012-4681.  You always hear of this one as a “privilege escalation” exploit, so I thought by popping out of the Java sandbox, you’d also pop out as an administrative user.

News flash.  It doesn’t work that way.  The exploit works, but you pop out of the sandbox as the same user as you ran the command.

I’m going to explain how to do it anyway.  Those Java developers can stop here, but the rest of us might still learn something.

What do I start out with?

Most exploits are captured via twitter, or some sort of pastebin website.  Usually with twitter linking to a pastebin, which is the case here.  The source code was tweeted by @jduck1337 pointing to pastie.org/4594319.  Grab the source code from there because that’s what we’re going to start out with.

Also, don’t forget to install a vulnerable version of Java.  Any Java 7 version at revision 7 or below should work.

I have my code, now what do I do with it?

You can see the class is called Gondvv.  So you’ll need to save that file as Gondvv.java.  Then erase that first line that says: package cve2012xxxx;  This will be a standalone file, not a package.

You’ll notice a bunch of jibberish, but near the end of the file you’ll see the purpose is simply to open calc.exe.  So no worries – the code as it stands is not actually malicious.

Finally, compile your code.  Go to the command prompt, browse to where your Gondvv.java file is, and type the following:

javac Gondvv.java

That was easy.  This should have created a Gondvv.class file.  Now since this was originally meant to run as a Java applet, you’ll need to create an HTML file with the following source:

<applet align=”center” code=”Gondvv.class” width=”800″ height=”500″></applet>

That alone will do it.  Run your HTML file, and your calculator will pop up.  Congrats, you successfully exploited the vulnerability!

java exploited

How about privilege escalation?

The next step was to make this a command line prompt.  Remember, I had command line as a lower privileged user already.  I was hoping to run commands inside this program to be higher privileged. So the next step was to strip away all the Java applet stuff.

So strip away the java.applet.Applet and java.awt.Graphics import lines.  Also make it so the public class Gondvv doesn’t extend Applet.  Then all the classes need to get the “static” keyword added to them.  Remove the very last paint class.  Finally, the public void init() class needs to be renamed to public static void main(String[] args).  The end result looks like the following:

(looked terrible here. Pasted it on pastebin)

Then compile it the same as before, and run it with:

java Gondvv

Calculator should pop up!  Not so exciting, but you can see it is working.  In order to see who is actually running it, you can just have it run “whoami.exe” or something along those lines.  Had it actually worked, I would have made it run a netcat listener or a meterpreter payload or something.

What if I just want a .jar file?

Don’t want to use the java keyword before running your file?  Make a .jar file.  You’ll first need to create a manifest.txt file.  The contents should be as follows:

Main-Class: Gondvv

Then at the command line, simply type the following to create your .jar file:

jar cvfm javahack.jar manifest.txt *.class

Bingo, now you can just run the jar file.  Enough Java for one day.